Tuesday, March 31, 2009

FREQUENT ITEMSET

A frequent itemset is an itemset whose support is greater than some user-specified minimum support. Here is the process for finding frequent itemsets.

Suppose min_sup is the minimum support threshold.

An itemset satisfies minimum support if the occurrence frequency of the itemset is greater than or equal to min_sup.

If an itemset satisfies minimum support, then it is a frequent itemset.
Hence, we first enter all the itemsets and eliminate those which do not satisfy the minimum support threshold.

REORDERING AND PRUNING

REORDERING AND PRUNING

The itemset is initially reordered and pruned. It is reordered so that the most common single attributes appear first, and pruned so that the unsupported itemsets are not included. The effect of this reordering and pruning is to make the running of the code more computationally efficient.

3.2.3 FP TREE
A popular "preprocessing" tree structure is the FP-tree proposed by Han et al. The FP-tree stores a single item at each node, and includes additional links to facilitate processing. These links start from a header table and link together all nodes in the FP-tree which store the same item.
The construction process begins with an initial pass to count support for the single items. Those that fail to meet the support threshold are eliminated, and the others ordered by decreasing frequency. We then pass through the dataset a second time and produce an initial FP-tree. We commence by reading the first record in the dataset and place this in the FP-tree. We then add the second record; the first element of this is common with an existing node and so we add the new node to the FP-tree structure.

Your comments ¬e on your interest relevance to given topics

Necessity is the mother of inventions. There are lots of inventions taking place every day. But still, necessity never ends its voyage. Today, the whole world is starving for energy and it is the time to work on finding new energy sources and start using conventional energy sources. Unless we find a new energy source, it is going to be very hard to manage the world in upcoming days.

We have to work on the technology that conserves electrical energy as well as produces electrical energy with cost effectiveness. This is the need of the hour.

Monday, March 30, 2009

FREQUENT ITEMSET MINING USING PROCESSED FP TREES

ABSTRACT



In many business transactions, one is very interested to know which products of his are sold more and which set of products are sold in combination. These details help in business analysis and for making major marketing decisions like promoting offers and free gifts. Mining data using association rules is in widespread use today and is highly relevant for market analysts.

The association rules generated are based on the frequencies in which these products are sold. A ‘support’ factor is introduced to know the frequency of an item being sold. If more than one item is involved in the analysis process, an itemset is formed. If a specified support count has been satisfied by the itemset, it is said to be a frequent itemset.

Various algorithms exist for mining of these frequent itemsets. One of the most popular alogorithms is the Apriori algorithm. The Apriori algorithm is based on candidate generation and its efficiency is not high. Later, to avoid candidate generation, the Frequent Pattern(FP) Tree method was proposed to mine frequent Itemsets.

In this project, we implement the FP Growth method which is used to mine FP Trees. Here we have moved from mining the entire data base to mining the FP tree constructed from the database. We then recursively mine conditional FP trees and grow frequent patterns obtained. The FP Growth method is a depth first algorithm unlike the Apriori which is Breadth First.




TABLE OF CONTENTS




CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO



ABSTRACT v


LIST OF TABLES ix


LIST OF FIGURES x


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 OBJECTIVE 1

1.2 FREQUENT ITEMSET
MINING – AN OVERVIEW 1

1.3 PROJECT SUMMARY 3


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 METHOD 4

2.2 THE PROBLEM WITH
APRIORI 5

2.3 AN ALTERNARTIVE TO
APRIORI 5



CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM DEFINITION
AND METHODOLOGY 6

3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION 6

3.2 METHODOLOGY 6

3.2.1 FREQUENT ITEMSET 7

3.2.2 REORDERING AND
PRUNING 7

3.2.3 FP TREE 7

3.2.4 FP GROWTH 8

3.2.5 TOTAL SUPPORT TREE 9

3.3 REQUIREMENTS 11

3.3.1 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 11

3.3.2 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 11

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN 12

4.1 PROJECT DESIGN 12

CHAPTER 5 IMPLEMENTATION 13

5.1 OVERVIEW 13

5.2 CLASSES 13

5.2.1 REORDER 13

5.2.2 FP TREE1 14

5.2.3 TOTALSUPPTREE 14

5.2.4 FPGAPP 15

CHAPTER 6 RESULT AND ANALYSIS 16

6.1 OUTPUT EXECUTION 16

6.2 OUTPUT COMPARISON 18

6.2.1 ACCURACY 18

6.2.2 T – TREE STORAGE 18




CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 19

7.1 CONCLUSION 19

7.2 FUTURE WORK 19


APPENDIX 1 CODING 20


APPENDIX 2 SCREENSHOTS 66


REFERENCES 68












LIST OF TABLES


TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.


Table 1.1 Project Summary 3

Table 3.1 Software Requirements 11

Table 3.2 Hardware Requirements 11






























LIST OF FIGURES


FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO.


Figure 3.1 FP Tree 8

Figure 3.2 FP Growth 9

Figure 3.3 Total Support Tree 10

Figure 4.1 Project Design 12

Figure A2.1 FP Growth – Screenshot 66

Figure A2.2 Apriori – Screenshot 67

Friday, March 27, 2009

Retarget table just in time compiler (Linux, c++)

A Just In Time compiler is one in which the compilation to native machine code occurs just prior to execution. These compilers can generate more efficient code than a static compiler, since it has more knowledge about the context and execution of the program. With the increase in use of multiprocessors, a necessity to retarget compilers to be compatible to different platforms has arised. Hence an attempt to retarget a JIT compiler to generate efficient target independent codes is made. To achieve target independent codes, Low Level Virtual Machine (LLVM) byte code representation is used. This representation makes use of a low-level, strongly typed, three-address, load-store code representation. LLVM is in Static Single Assignment form that is machine independent, but can handle certain machine specific features also.
The input to the compiler is a C program compiled to LLVM byte code. As the LLVM is target-independent, many phases of code generation can be target independent, making the JIT easily retarget able to new platforms (targets) without changing the code generator. Thus the code generation process is separated into a series of modular stages, simplifying addition of new passes and replacement of the existing one. The code generation is split into few target independent phases namely: Live Variable Analysis, Register Allocation and Prologue/Epilogue phases. This can be used to provide a flexible host for future research in runtime optimization for programs written in languages that are traditionally compiled statically.



Project Members : Abdul Muthalib & Taher Bharmal
Project Guide : Ms. Swatika

Efficient Mobile Agents Based Load Balancing on Distributed Web Servers Abstract

Distributed web Servers on the immensely expanding Internet requires high scalability and availability to provide efficient services to millions of clients on the web to provide rapid responses to enormous number of clients requests load balancing is a important technique to evenly distribute the request to the web servers.

So we propose a framework called MALD (Mobile Agent based Load balancing) that uses mobile agent technology to implement scalable load balancing on the distributed web servers
Various load balancing policies can be incorporated with versatile mobile agents in the framework..

Compared with the traditional message passing based load balancing method, the mobile agent based approaches have the merits of high flexibility, low network traffic and high asynchrony. The performance evaluation demonstrates that the MALD frame work provides a foundation to develop efficient load balancing schemes on wide range of web servers systems



Project Members : Abdul Muthalib & Taher Bharmal
Project Guide : Ms. Swatika

Thursday, March 26, 2009

The ability to handle events in client script.

Automatic maintenance of the control's state. If the form makes a round trip to the server, the values that the user entered into HTML server controls are automatically maintained when the page is sent back to the browser.
Interaction with validation controls you can easily verify that a user has entered appropriate information into a control.
Data binding to one or more properties of the control.
Support for HTML 4.0 styles if the Web Forms page is displayed in a browser that supports cascading style sheets. Pass-through of custom attributes. You can add any attributes you need to an HTML server control and the page framework will read them and render them without any change in functionality. This allows you to add browser-specific attributes to your controls. For details about how to convert an HTML element to an HTML server control, see Adding HTML Server Controls to a Web Forms Page
Web Server Controls
Web server controls are a second set of controls designed with a different emphasis. They do not map one-to-one to HTML server controls. Instead, they are defined as abstract controls in which the actual HTML rendered by the control can be quite different from the model that you program against. For example, a RadioButtonList Web server control might be rendered in a table or as inline text with other HTML.
Web server controls include traditional form controls such as buttons and text boxes as well as complex controls such as tables. They also include controls that provide commonly used form functionality such as displaying data in a grid, choosing dates, and so on.
Web server controls offer all of the features described above for HTML server controls (except one-to-one mapping to HTML elements) and these additional features:
A rich object model that provides type-safe programming capabilities.
Automatic browser detection. The controls can detect browser capabilities and create appropriate output for both basic and rich (HTML 4.0) browsers.
For some controls, the ability to define your own look for the control using templates
For some controls, the ability to specify whether a control's event causes immediate posting to the server or is instead cached and raised when the form is submitted.
Ability to pass events from a nested control (such as a button in a table) to the container control.
At design time in HTML view, the controls appear in your page in a format such as:
<
The attributes in this case are not those of HTML elements. Instead, they are properties of the Web control.
When the Web Forms page runs, the Web server control is rendered on the page using appropriate HTML, which often depends not only on the browser type but also on settings that you have made for the control. For example, a Textbox control might render as an INPUT tag or a TEXTAREA tag, depending on its properties.

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

OMAR KHAYYAM – PART 2

The Rubaiyat was practically unknown in the West until the publication of an English translation by Edward FitzGerald in 1859. Three subsequent editions were published during FitzGerald’s life (1868, 1872, 1879), and a fifth edition was included in The Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Fitzgerald, edited by W. A. Wright (1889).


Numerous editions have appeared since. FitzGerald’s work has been called a “poetic transfusion” rather than a translation. He rearranged the quatrains to produce a sequence of thought not evident in Khayyam’s work, and there is even doubt as to Omar’s authorship of some of the verses. Other translations into English have been made by E. H. Whinfield, who followed the original much more closely than FitzGerald; by Justin Huntley McCarthy, whose version, though in prose, has all the qualities that are generally termed poetic; by Edward Heron Allen, whose translation is also in prose, closely following the original; by John Leslie Garner; by John Payne; and by Jesse E. Cadell.

OMAR KHAYYAM – PART 1

A Persian poet and astronomer. Omar Khayyam was born in Nishapur, Khorassan around 1048, and died in 1123 or 1131. When offered wealth by a lifelong friend, he is noted to have declined the gift, answering: “The greatest boon you can confer on me is to let me live in a corner under the shadow of your fortune, to spread wide the advantages of science, and pray for your long life and prosperity. “ So he lived “busied in winning knowledge of every kind.”

His Takhallys, or poetical name, means “Tentmaker,” and he is noted one time to have exercised that trade. As an astronomer he was responsible for a revision of the Persian calendar and occupied and position of importance at the court of the Sultan Malik Shah at Merv. HE wrote a number of works on mathematics, in which one on algebra was translated by Woepeke (1851). It is, however, as the author of a collection of quatrains, called the Rubaiyar, that Omar Khayyam is more popularly known. These poems, isolated, impulsive, unrestrained, and characterized by rapid transitions from minstrelsy of love and grave argument to deadly fatalism and ribald tavern song, demonstrate an interesting development of Persian mysticism. As with the Song of Solomon, these poems are interpreted in literal context, as well as figuratively.

Virgil – PART 2

During Virgil’s stay in Naples, he wrote the Georgics, a work of surpassing beauty. Composed at the suggestion of Maecenas, its purpose was to aid and support Augustus in the promotion of a back-to the country movement. The four books deal respectively with agriculture, horticulture, rearing of farm animals, and beekeeping. In the fourth book, the poet tells us that if “he were not near the end of his task and the furling of his sails, he would sing of gardens.”

The last 11 years of Virgil’s life were devoted to the Aeneid, an epic in 12 books illustrating the fall of Troy, the wanderings of Aeneas and ideals of classical beauty. In a Trojan settlement in Latium, Virgil casts himself in the role of imperial propagandist. Venus is the mother of Aeneas, and Idlus, his son, is the progenitor of the Junlian line, which has now given to the world the great Augustus, its final and perfect flower. Meanwhile, Rome’s divine mission as ruler of the races of men is proclaimed with evangelical fervor and passion.

Many readers consider Book VI the most beautiful and impressive of the 12. Here we read of the descent of the hero into Hades, where he finds the shade of his father Anchises in the Elysian Fields and receives encouragement and counsel for the tempestuous days that lie ahead.

Virgil – PART 1

Known as Virgil, his full name was Publius Vergilius Maro. A Roman poet and author of the Aeneid, he was born in 70 BC at Andes, near Mantua, in Cisalpine Gaul. His education, begun in Cremona, continued in Mediolanum, and was completed in Rome. He planned to practice law, but after one unimpressive appearance in court, the modest, timid young man returned to his farm and began to write, only to be evicted. In 41 BC, Antony’s veterans, home from the Philippi campaign, were rewarded with the customary allotment of land.

In 19 BC he went to Athens with the idea of completing his final revision of the Aeneid. When Augustus appeared in the city and urged him to return to Rome, he gathered up his still unfinished manuscript and joined the imperial party. Before the ship reached Italy he fell ill and he died at Brundisium.

A furious argument has raged for many years over a group of poems collectively called Appendix Vetgiliana and ascribed to Virgil. It is highly probable that some of his early poetic efforts are to be found in this collection. However, he certainly did not write all of the pieces. In 37 BC he published his Bucolics or Eclogues. His model was Theocritus, whose Idylls were composed about 270 BC. The most interesting of the Bucolics is the fourth, which proclaims the coming of a golden age, to be heralded by the birth of a divine child. For many centuries Virgil was believed to have prophesied, in this lovely poem, the birth of Jesus.

DANTE ALIGHIERI

Immediately after his banishment, Dante joined hundreds of other Florentine exiles at a castle near Arezzo. They allied themselves with Bianchi forces and tried several times, unsuccessfully, to force an entry into Florence. Dante's pleas for pardon were all refused. For the rest of his life, Dante roamed through Italy. In his wanderings, he described himself as "a bark without sail and without rudder, borne to diverse ports and bays and shores by that dry wind which grievous poverty breathes forth."

The Banquet, written sometime after his banishment, perhaps 1303, was intended as a handbook of universal knowledge; the Vita Nuova, a poem of his youth, is a lyric eulogy of Beatrice, a leading character in the Comedy, whose identity is still subject to controversy.

Dante's minor works include De Monarchia, De vulgari Eloquenta, Questis de Aqua et Terra, and Eclogues. A few of his letters have also been preserved.

It is probable that he spent his last years at Ravenna, under the protection of Guido da Polenta, a philosopher poet and lord of the city. He died there in July or September, 1321, not long after the completion of his immortal Divine Comedy.

Sunday, March 22, 2009

Using Files and Filegroups

Using files and filegroups improves database performance by allowing a database to be created across multiple disks, multiple disk controllers, or redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) systems. For example, if your computer has four disks, you can create a database that comprises three data files and one log file, with one file on each disk. As data is accessed, four read/write heads can simultaneously access the data in parallel, which speeds up database operations.Additionally, files and filegroups allow better data placement because a table can be created in a specific filegroup. This improves performance because all I/O for a specific table can be directed at a specific disk. For example, a heavily used table can be placed on one file in one filegroup and located on one disk. The other less heavily accessed tables in the database can be placed on other files in another filegroup, located on a second disk.

Storage Engine Architectural Overview

Overview
The original code was inherited from Sybase and designed for eight-megabyte Unix systems in 1983.These new formats improve manageability and scalability and allow the server to easily scale from low-end to high-end systems, improving performance and manageability.
Benefits
There are many benefits of the new on-disk layout, including:
• Improved scalability and integration with Windows NT Server
• Better performance with larger I/Os
• Stable record locators allow more indexes
• More indexes speed decision support queries
• Simpler data structures provide better quality
• Greater extensibility, so that subsequent releases will have a cleaner development process and new features are faster to implement

VIDEO REVOLUTION...

The video revolution has taken India by storm. It has caught the imagination of the people. It carries the potential of becoming the mass entertainer of the future. Presently, the production of Video Cassette Records (VCRs) in India is rather limited. Import of this item is restricted to give boost to Indian production.

The price of a video in India is still high. It is beyond the reach of the middle class. Thus, a number of video libraries have come up. These libraries hire out pre-recorded film cassete for a reasonable fee per day. Mini-video theatres and cafes for entertainment are coming up.

According to an estimate, for every cinema theatre in the country, there are in place two video threatres/cafes. This number is growing. Most long distance buses now provide video entertainment for passengers. Even long distance trains are following suit. Educational institutions, hospitals have started screening useful films on video.

The craze for video is not just confined to metro cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Even smaller cities and towns have come under tis sway. Films are shown on video after they are released. The result is that there is poor turnout of people in cinema theatres. Government is put to loss owing to losing revenue by way of entertainment tax.

The film industry in India is perturbed over the ever-increasing incidence of video piracy. Government has taken a number of measures to mitigate the hardships caused to the film industry from video piracy.Those measures are:
(i) Amendment of the Cinematograph Act, 1952, by the Cinematograh Act, 1984 to provide for enhanced punishment
(ii) Making the offences already cognisable relating to certification of films as non-bailable also; and
(iii) Amendment of the Copyright Act, 1957 by copyright Act, 1984 to provide for enhanced and minimum punishment for various kinds of offences under the Act. Offences of infringement of copyright have become cognisable and non-bailable.

In fact, people in urban areas have become crazy to watch video shows. One can watch a video film with family in the comfort of one's drawing room. One need not bother to go all the way to cinema theatre. No advance booking called for; no chance to see House Full notices.

The audio and video have come to stay. It is becoming popular the world over.

Video has ushered in a new era of entertainment. If we view this development dispassioately, we will find that video is supplementing the efforts of the cine world to entertain. It is not a substitute, but a sisterly effort that does not clash as the objective of both, is to educate and entertain. All the more reason to allow both to flourish each in its own way.

UNITY IN DIVERSITY...

Unity in diversity has become a catch phrase for civilised people who celebrate differences and wat to end civil disruption, communal violence, religious conflicts and international tensions.

The principle of unity in diversity has its origins in the concept of inconceivable simultaneous oneness and difference. Although the Vedas enjoin; everything is non-different from the God who is the Supreme Soul, this creates logical enigmas. For instance, if everything is one, why do not I eat my kith and kin? Further, how can Brahma be complete since it also presupposes negation of everthing material?

The idea of simultaneous oneness and difference may pose problems for rationalist, but it is easily resolved when one accepts an omnipotent, omniscent and omnipresent god. In other words, essential truth contain paradoxes, and we cannot know everything by reason and deduction.

For omstance, our body functions as a holistic unit, but we constantly make distinctions between stomach, legs arms, eyes, heart and head. Significantly, within overselves, there is unity and diversity.

We want to relate to ourselves and others, and yet be separate. To retire to a remote Himalayan village, dance merrily on the streets, or find a cave, distant hermitage or ashram where we can just contemplate mystic phenomena for the rest of our lives. Would it not be wonderful to be rid once and for all of responsibility and unceasing duties, and be a renunciant?

Readers of the Gita learn that the true mystic is 'not he who lights no fire and performs no duty'. This theme recurs in Vedic literature. "When one thinks that the living entity is non-different in all respect from the Supreme Lord, there is no doubt that he is in ignorance".

Great sages of the past have taught us that renunciation is incomplete unless we use everything in god's service. Rupa Goswami has written: "When one is not attached to anything, but at the same time accepts everthing in relation to Krishna, one is rightly situated above possessiveness. On the other hand, one who rejects everything, without knowledge of its relationship to Krishna, is not as compete as his renunciation."

One can be active but do learn how to dedicate all your activities to god. This is the perfection of renunciation, the deeper understanding od meditational life, and the key to reconciliation between all people. Duty as a sacred principle is joyous to perform. Gita has said: "life dedicated to duty is life fulfilled."

Saturday, March 21, 2009

SHUN THE I – NESS…

The Gita says: “Be humble, be harmless, have no pretension, be upright, forbearing; serve your teacher in true obedience, keeping the mind and body in cleanness, tranquil, steadfast, master of ego, standing apart from the things of the senses. Free from self; aware of the weakness in mortal nature.” Lose the I, gain the self.

Each soul is potentially divine. “We are not human beings learning to be spiritual; we are spiritual beings learning to be human,” goes a saying. If this be so, why this forgetfulness about our diving potential? What causes this amnesia? Man indeed forgets that he is the son of a king.

A child prince brought up by hunters does not know that he is of royal lineage; he will remain ignorant about his ancestry till somebody identifies him as a prince. Swami Vivekananda emphasized that the self in each person is not different from the godhead.
The absolute is within oneself, declares the Chandogya Upanishad. In the Gita, Krishna describes the jiva as “My own eternal portion.”

In his teachings, Swami Vivekananda exhorts us to: “Put out the self, lose it, forget it; get rid of the little ‘I’ and let only the great ‘I’ live.” The little ‘I’ is the petty empirical ego that makes a person feel that he himself is the door of all action. Conquering the ego involves keeping our mental ‘eyes’ turned towards the great ‘I’.

It entails dedication of the faculties of attention and intellect to god while performing one’s duty. Such a dedication cannot be achieved by mere thinking. It should be done through sustained meditation and by withdrawing the mind completely from all conscious contact with ideas or notions other than god. Such a person retains his identity but is devoid of I-ness his self is emptied of the self.

To establish contact with the great ‘I’ the Gita advocates the path of detachment. Simply put it is: “Attachment gone, deliverance won.” But this is easier said than done.

The Gita says that the practical way to alleviate mental clinging is by changing the elevation of attachment. With the mind attachment to god, there will emerge a non-attachment with reference to things other than god.

Izaak Walton narrates the following anecdote in his essay title, Contentment: “Diagenes once went with his friend to see a country fair, where he saw ribbons, looking glasses, nutcrackers, fiddles, hobby houses and many other things. Having observed them, he said to his friend: ‘Lord, how many things are there in this world of which Diogenes hath no need’!”

Said Janaka: “Infinite indeed is my wealth of which nothing is mine. If Mithala is burnt, nothing that is mine is burnt.”

“When purity of intention id developed, passions directed towards mundane objects die, producing tranquility of mind which in turn gives rise to the inward silence in which the soul begins to establish contact with the Eternal from which it is sundered and experience the presence of the in-dwelling god,” said S. Radhakrishnan, effectively summing up the essence of this inward journey.

SMILE AT WORK…

We live in an age where long-haired smiley sorts run crash courses to turn living into an art form and “laughter clubs” thrive because of the lack of anything funny to really laugh about, or laugh at ourselves.

So there is nothing at all awry about nationalized bank’s recent directive which tells its employees to smile at work. But can an artificial smile do the job? Air hostesses are also asked to wear a smile all the while. While this may sound dangerously similar to Nazi Germany’s “strength through joy” campaign or for that matter, the management etiquette of a particular Indian airline-cum-television company bank employees. Notorious for their castor oil-faced dealings with customers, could do with a conscious effort to genuinely smile. A smile on the face gets a response. The other person warms up too.

The miner-dwarves in Walt Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarves seemed a happy lot as they went about their business singing about the virtues of whistling while one works. In the formal environment of a bank, breaking into whistles might not be a good idea and it may be misunderstood. But surely, as in any service, putting on a smile would be nice.

But then, the bank directive goes on to state that employees must also wear a tie to office as pharmaceutical and other sales persons do. In the hot seasons this may make the person very uncomfortable to the point of appearing laughable.

Apart from the fact that science has yet to prove the existence of any correlation between wearing a knot and a smile, forcing bank employees to wear ties may be a bad idea especially in a humid and hot country as India.

The directive is intended for employees of branches in Ahmedabad, Delhi, Kanpur, Kolkata, Mumbai, Pune and Varanasi none of the places known for any nip in the air. School children too and tiny tots are asked to wear a tie with uniform.
One does not know whether the air conditioning machines in these offices recreate the climatic conditions of places where ties are prevalent.

But lest one think that we are making much ado about sartorial nothings, it should be pointed out that a piece of cloth straddling the neck may inhibit a smile especially when foisted upon by higher-ups.
Many banks and offices do have a tie rule and their employees do manage not to snarl at customers despite it. But if it is perking up the image of its employees that the bank has in mind, then a decent set of clean clothes and a pleasant disposition should be the trick. And, of course, a real smile.

EXPORT OR PERISH...

Since the advent of internationalism, nations of the world have become members of the world community. Countries have become interdependent. It is not possible for any single state to produce all that it needs, as natural resources in variety and reserves are limited to certain areas only.

So export is very necessary in the modern civilized world. Prior to Independence, the pattern of trade of India was typically colonial. India used to supply only raw materials to industrialized nations as a result there was no industrial development in India.

In the beginning, after Independence, we imported heavy machinery that we could not produce ourselves. At the same time the aim of the government was to become self-sufficient in producing as many goods as it was products. India's exports before Independence proved harmful to the economy of India. We were exporting only raw material and were buying finished goods of the same raw material at higher prices. British rulers had restricted our exports to a few countries and the balance of trade was not favorable to slave India.

After the Second World War, India started export of same goods to other countries also and developed the export potential to some extent.

The export policy of the Indian Government after Independence was guided by two considerations that are to maximize the earnings and to ensure that exports are not affected if the home demand for a commodity is not adequately met. It was devaluation and Korean War that provided stimulus to our exports. Soon export promotion became a necessity. It was realized that export promotion should be preceded by industrialization. Five-year plans proved handy.

Quite some decades ago an import and export policy committee known as Mudalier Committee was set up to examine the export policy. It pointed out he factors that were hindering exports were both external as well as internal. It informed that tea, cotton textiles and jute products were the only staple items for export.


Moreover there is more competition in the international market and so even our export items need quality control and reasonable prices. The Committee recommended the increasing of allocation of exportable items, income tax relief to export industries and the promotion of exports through entitlements.

The Government took many steps according to the recommendations of the Committee and an Export Promotion Advisory Council comprising representation of business and industry was set up by the Central Government. Even devaluation of the rupee was tried in this context.

Our exports need to exceed our imports. It is with the help of foreign exchange that we can undertake more schemes for the development of Indian economy. Increasing exports need a complete reorientation of our policy towards the different sectors, private and public, as well as toward the consumption at home. We must be quality conscious of the exportable items if not our reputation will be at stake.

To a great extent, the State Trading Corporation of India is taking care of this.

FAITH AND REASON...

There is no conflict between faith and reason. May we examine the issue in some detail. In this context prayers offered in full faith are very efficacious. Prayers does not change things. It changes people, and they change things. So do not pray for lighter burdens; pray for stronger back.

Rabbi Eliezer once said, "Turn to god one day before your death." His disciples asked: "How can a man know the day of his death?" The Rabbi replied: "Then you should turn to god today; perhaps you will die tomorrow; thus everyday will be employed in returning to god."

Faith, as embodied in religion, and reason as embodied in science are often but erroneously thought of as being in opposition to each other. Science is not an enemy of religion, only of superstition. Both science and religion are engaged in the search for truth, the main difference lies in the methodologies used.

Science is an investigation of truth in the finite nature outside, the object. Religion is an investigation into the nature of the infinite, the subject. Science aims for universally verifiable knowledge. Religion aims for individual realization. We are closer to the physical world than to the metaphysical. We respect science, because it is premised on reason.

Swami Sivananda holds that science knows little about the origin of life, the origin of thought, and the origin and destiny of human nature and the universe. Faith is beyond reason. There are many questions to which our faith alone can help us find answers.

Sri Paramahansa Yoganand asks for experimentation in religion. He says: "Why should we merely read and hear discussions about god, and know nothing from personal experience? It is possible to put religion into practice, to use it scientifically. Without practical application, religion is of little value."

The first experiment with religion ought to begin with silence. This is the first step towards meditation. As Yoganand says: "If you make a supreme effort in the silence of the night or early in the morning, then after a little while you will see a glimmer of god's light or feel a ripple of his joy coming your consciousness."

Experimentation with religion is very different as the results take place right inside you.

Truthfulness is another spiritual principle recommended for experimentation. Yoganand says that truth is always wholesome. Giving happiness to others is vital to one's own happiness. The world outside is an extension of the world inside. So we ought to practice self-control, forgiveness, and communion with god in our day to day life.

One can evolve spiritually without being religious in the conventional sense of the word. After all, we are spiritual beings, part of the one supreme spirit. We exist beyond our bodies. To follow the path of prayer and single-mindedness of thought is enough.

Prayer is surrendering oneself to god completely. It does not demand intelligence or eloquence. Swami Sivananda says that one should pray for god's grace, not for earthy goods or for heavenly pleasures. Selfless faith and prayer and patience can work wonders.

DEVOTION...

Devotion is the easiest way to get liberation. If god is "simple" and easily approachable as our spiritual guides tell us, why then the numerous sacred texts, which project His qualities, are complicated, giving scope for divergent commentaries and even for criticism by some?

These works will appear tough and controversial only to an ordinary individual but even he can get enlightened when the contents are properly analysed and presented for those who are keen to approach god.

The Gita and Sri Madhawaharya's commentary on it resolve the apparent inconsistencies therein, spelling out the theme relating to obtaining liberation which a struggling soul will be keen to secure. What then is the easiest and effective means to be adopted to seek liberation is the question that may arise in many minds as they have before them several avenues.

"Devotion to god with intense faith, sincerity and love" is the simplest way and how to cultivate it is described almost elaborately in the Gita, in which innumerable episodes are added to demonstrate god's merciful qualities.

The acharyas, who were deputed by god with a mission to guide the yearning souls, have brought out esoteric significance of the Divine actions. The significance of events like Lord Krishna's sport with innocent cowherd maiden have been explained in Madhawa's commentary.

People refer to a doubt whether the path adopted by the cowherd maiden can be emulated by all, the Acharya writes that the Lord nothing to benefit from any of His such sports.

The maids were soaked in devotion and the Lord knows the trajectory, which a soul has to take. The desire of the women served as a catalytic factor to further intensify their bhakti, transforming them totally oblivious to all mundane considerations.

The Lord only facilitated the devotees by making Himself visible and playing with them. He was then hardly seven, and as the Supreme, He is ever joyous within Himself and hence there was no need to go after pleasure.

Every available opportunity should hence be utilized and channellised in making bhakti blossom.

A piece of iron sinks in water but when the same is beaten into thin sheets, they can be used to build a boat to ferry us across a river. Desire, not for worldly gains but as an aid to devotion, serves as a venerable trait. God too displays His regards for men of bhakti and preserves the dust of their feet.

evaluate...

This is the candidate evaluation form of a career company...


The market leaders in overseas careers
CONFIDENTIAL
Y AXIS OVERSEAS CAREER EVALUATION FORM
Please use CAPITAL LETTERS to fill this form

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5
Step 6






Educate yourself of the company and opportunities.

Go through the Reading Material available Fill Form
Page 1 and 2 are common.
Select relevant section

Speak to a Consultant Develop Strategy Sign up Begin career overseas

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE
(You can choose multiple options)
I would like to  Work  Study  Visit  Migrate  Invest/Do Business  Working Holiday
In  USA  Canada  UK  Australia  New Zealand  Ireland  Germany  Switzerland  Russia  Singapore  Dubai  China  Other ______________________________________________

Personal Information

First Name: _________________Middle Name___________ Last Name_______________________

Email ID: ________________________________________________________________
 Check here if you like to receive regular updates on overseas careers and visas

Mailing Address: ___________________________________________________________________________________
Address 2: _________________________________________________________________________
City _________________________________State_______________________ Zip ________________

Contact Number (Mobile) __________________________ Res: _____________________________

Date of Birth: _________________ Age: _______________

Profession: ______________________________ Years of experience________________

Marital Status:  Single  Engaged  Married  Divorced

All information furnished in this form is true and can be supported by documentary evidence.

__________________________ ________________________
Signature of the Applicant Date

Please fill this page and the next page before a consultant can meet with you.
PROFESSIONAL PROFILE

ACADEMIC PROFILE
Level Degree Institute Year of Passing Grade
Masters
Bachelors
Diploma
XII

WORK EXPERIENCE
Are you  Salaried  Self Employed?
If self employed, please specify the nature of business:_________________________________

WORK EXPERIENCE
Name of the Company Title Years of Experience Industry Location










Total number of years of full time work experience ________

ENGLISH PROFICIENCY
Have you taken the IELTS/TOEFL exam?  Yes  No Date Taken _____________________________________
If yes, which module have you taken?  General  Academic  Band______________

Do you have knowledge of French?  Yes  No
If yes, please tick appropriate level of Proficiency
 Beginners  Medium  High Level


FINANCES
What has been your annual income during the previous year?______________________
What is the total value of the assets you hold?
Fixed Assets ____________________ Liquid Assets ____________________________
Do you file IT Returns?  Yes  No


FAMILY DETAILS
If married, please give the following details for your spouse:

First Name: _______________________Middle Name___________ Last Name_____________
Age: ___________________ Qualification: ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬________________________
Total number of years of full time work experience: ____________  None

Do you have children:  Yes  No
If yes, where do your spouse & children live?  Inside India  Outside India

OVERSEAS TRAVEL HISTORY
Have you ever traveled overseas before?  Yes  No
Name of the country Purpose Year Duration of stay







Do you currently hold a visa for any country?  Yes  No
Have you been rejected by any consulate?  Yes  No If yes, please provide details below:

Name of the consulate Type of Visa Applied for When rejected?
 This Month  Last month  less than  6 months  1 year  more than 1 year
 This Month  Last month  less than  6 months  1 year  more than 1 year


MIGRATION SERVICES SECTION
For Migration Applicants only

I would like to  Migrate through the following program:
 Canada:  Federal Migration  Regional Migration
 UK  HSMP  Australia  SIMS  ENS  New Zealand  XYZ
 Singapore Other ______________________________________________
 I don’t have a specific idea. I request you to recommend whatever is best for me.
 I require Post Landing Services

REASON FOR MIGRATION
 Children education  Dollar income  Healthcare facilities  Better retirement  Better career prospects  Better work environment  Career Break

Time Frame
 Less than 6 month  less than 1 year  1-2 years  2-3 years  More than 3 years

Relationship
Do you have a close blood relative (Brother, Sister, Uncle, Aunt, Niece, Nephew, Father, Mother) in Australia /Canada/New Zealand? Yes  No
If yes:
COUNTRY RELATIONSHIP LOCATION
 Australia
 Canada
 New Zealand
 USA
 UK
WORK OVERSEAS SECTION
For those wanting to search for work from India itself
Country of Interest:
 USA  Canada  UK  Australia  New Zealand  Ireland  Germany  Switzerland  Russia Singapore  Dubai  China  Other _______________________________
 My migration petition has been approved. I do not want to enter the country without a job offer.
 I would like to apply for a job where the employer will be able to sponsor my migration papers.
 I would like to apply for a job from India itself and a work permit is sufficient.
CONSULATE SERVICE SECTION
For Temporary/Short Stay/Visit Visa Applicants only
Student: Please use the forms on Page 5 Businessmen: Please use the form on Page 6

I require  Documentation Services  Visa Interview Orientation  Schedule an Interview Date
Purpose:  Tourist  Business  Job Search  Working Holiday

Country of visit: in  USA  Canada  UK  Australia  New Zealand  Ireland  Germany  Switzerland  Russia  Singapore  Dubai  China  Other _______________________________

Purpose of visit  Visit friends  Holiday  Attend a conference  Attend an interview  Trade Show  Working Holiday
Specify ____________________________________________________________________

Which type of Specific Visa are you holding/intending to hold?______________ (E.g. F-1Visa)

Who is going to finance your visit? ______________________________

Do you have any contacts in the country to be visited?  Yes  No
Do you have any invitation from overseas contacts?  Yes  No
How long do you want to go on your first visit?  1 wk  2 wks  1-month  2 months  3 months  More than 3 months

Have you already scheduled the interview with the Consulate? If so, when is the date_________________ 


For Student Applicants Only
For those requiring an admission and/or visa

Objective I want to become a ____________________________________________________________________

Preferences
Country:
 USA  UK  Canada  Australia  New Zealand  Germany  Switzeland  Singapore  Dubai  China Russia  Other ___________________________

Level:
 Bachelors  Masters  Doctorate  Diploma  Bridging program  Certificate
Degree:  BS  MS  MBA  MSC  MBBS  BDS  MDS  Other ________________________
Specialisation:  None  Priority 1_____________  Priority 2_____________  Priority 3_____________
Term:  Any  Summer  Winter  Fall or Month _____________ in  2005  2006
Duration of the Course:  3 months  6 months  12 months  18 months  24 months  3 years  4 years
Annual Tuition: Not more than  Rs. 3.0 Lakhs  Rs. 5.0 Lakhs  Rs. 7.0 Lakhs  Rs. 10 Lakhs

Who will be funding you  Parents  Self  Bank  Other __________________

When do you want to go?  Immediately  Next available term  ______________


Specific Interest:
 Work-Study Program in the USA  Graduate Migration to Australia  Other _____________________
 Specific College/University you want to get into ______________________________________________________

Test Scores
Name of the test Score Level If no score, scheduled date.




STUDENT VISAS
Those requiring Student visa documentation and visa orientation services only

Which country do you want a Visa for?
in  USA  Canada  UK  Australia  New Zealand  Ireland  Germany  Switzerland  Italy  France Russia  Singapore  Dubai  China   Other ______________________________________________

Type of the Visa you will be applying for?
 Student Visa  Exchange Student Visa  Dependent Visa

UNIVERSITY PROGRAM DETAILS

What is the name of the university you got an admission to? ______________________________________
City __________________________ State/Region______________________ Country__________________

When is the Reporting Date for the Orientation Session? _______________________
When is the Start Date for the Classes? ________________________

FINANCIAL DETAILS
How are you going to fund the study?  Family  Bank Loan  Own Funds

Have you already scheduled the interview with the Consulate? If so, when is the date_________________


BUSINESSMEN AND CORPORATE ONLY
Go Global/ Do Business/Invest Overseas /Business Visas

I would like to  Apply for a Business Visa  Invest Overseas  Migrate through Investor Route  Purchase/License Goods & Services Overseas  Register Trademark overseas  Incorporate  Open a Branch office overseas

 I would like to participate in a Trade Show.
Specify Event____________________________________
Location: ____________________Dates: ______________________________

Business Profile
Name of the Firm you are representing: ______________________________________

In what capacity do you represent it?
 Proprietor  Partner  Director  Employee  Other ___________________

Travel History

Have any of your company employees been abroad on company business?  Yes  No

If so, how many?  1  2  3  4  5  5-10  More than 10

Have they been to any of these countries? Check those that apply.
 USA  Canada  UK  New Zealand  Australia  Germany  France  Scandinavia
 Japan  Singapore  Other _________________________________________


Investment
What are you looking to purchase or establish? _________________________________________________________________________________________

Migration

Would you also want to apply for migration?  Yes  No

Would you want to make your adopted country your main home?  Yes  No

Product Service Research

Do you want to use Y AXIS Overseas Business Research & Liaison Services?  Yes  No
ALLIED SERVICES
Since we get a volume discount from related services, would you like to consider using our services to purchase any of the following products or services?
 Air ticketing Services
 Travel Insurance
 Foreign Exchange Services

HOW DID YOU HEAR ABOUT US?
 Television
 Hoarding located at _____________________________
 Newspaper Ad in ________________________ dated________________________
 Seminar
 Magazine
 Word of Mouth
 News Item
 Banner
 Other ____________________





REFER A FRIEND OR RELATIVE and get a 5% referral fee*

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Name________________________ E-mail ______________________Mobile______________________________

Enter your referral’s name/s below:
_______________________E-mail________________ Mobile__________________________________________
_______________________E-mail________________ Mobile __________________________________________
_______________________E-mail________________ Mobile __________________________________________




If you have received this application by mail:
 Mail it by back or
 Fill it up and visit any of our offices
Y AXIS Hyderabad:
First Floor, GS Chambers, Nagarjuna circle, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad – 5000 82
Y AXIS Secunderabd:
Ground Floor, MayFair, SD Road, Secunderabad – 5000 03
Y AXIS Bangalore:
11th Floor, Prestige Meridian, MG Road, Bangalore – 560 001
Y AXIS Chennai:
Ground Floor, Aashirvaad Towers, McNichols Road, Chetpet, Chennai – 600 031
Y AXIS Panjim:
First Floor, Shiv Towers, Panjim, Goa – 403 001
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Third Floor, Osia Complex, Margao, Goa – 403 601

Any questions or comments?
 Call 939 640 1515
 E-mail customerservice@y-axis.com
 SMS NRI to 7333


FOR OFFICE USE ONLY
NOTES: ________________________________________________________________________________________

Referrers Name ___________________Counselor Name _____ ______________Office ______________________
Suitable for: ___________________________________________
Recommended: _________________________________________
Next Action:
Suitable for
 Follow up  Will call  Will visit  Ignore

Grade:  A  B  C  D

My quotation...

Recently, I have got a quotation for my computer. Here it is...




Proposal for Desktop Computers
Submitted to Mr. Muthalib



Date: 8th March 2009
Proposed by


MS Info Systems& Services
Chennai, India





Contents
Purpose 3
Configuration Details 3
1. INTEL DUAL CORE COMBINATION 3
2. AMD COMBINATION 3
Commercial Section 4
For CPU 4
For Monitor 4













Purpose
The purpose of this document is to provide Mr. Muthalib the commercial price for two desktop computers (AMD combination & Intel Combination).

Configuration Details
1. INTEL DUAL CORE COMBINATION

INTEL G31 MOTHERBOARD
DUAL CORE PROCESSOR
1 GB RAM (DDR-2)
160 GB HARD DISK
ATX CABINET
TVS KEYBOARD
OPTICAL MOUSE
SAMSUNG DVD R/W

2. AMD COMBINATION
M2N68 MOTHERBOARD
1250 PROCESSOR
1GBDDR2 RAM
80GB HARD DISK
ATX CABINET
TVS KEYBOARD
OPTICAL MOUSE
SAMSUNG DVD R/W



Commercial Section
The price indicated in this section is the cost for desktop CPU (AMD combination & Intel Combination), monitor (CRT/LCD).
For CPU
S.no Processor Combination Type Quantity

Price**
(INR)
Inclusive of all taxes
1 AMD Combination 1 11,000
2 Intel Combination 1 13,500

For Monitor
S.no Monitor Type Quantity

Price**
(INR)
Inclusive of all taxes
1 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) 1 4000
2 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 1 5500
** -Prices are exclusive of delivery charges. Prices and any other statutory levies prevailing at the time of invoicing shall be applicable.


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Friday, March 20, 2009

For the busy body that you are…..

Sitting infront of a computer for long periods often causes neck and shoulder stiffness and occasionally lower back pain.
Do these stretches every hour or throughout the day, or whenever you feel stiff.
Be sure to get up and walk around the office once in a while. You’ll feel better!





Thursday, March 19, 2009

Listening

Listening is an activity which we all should try to practise. It is effective because proper listening enhances relationships and removes misunderstandings. It helps people to develop trust with each other and therefore ideas are better conveyed and there is also clarity involved in communication. Listening has a lot of benefits attached to it.
Listening is an active activity. Having a passive mind and being lazy are great barriers to listening. People who are active in their everyday lives can listen more because their mind is always open to ideas and they are always ready to take in a lot of input. Become more active, listen more and life will become more enjoyable.

COSTILIEST COMMERCIAL

video

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

GURU AS AWAKENER...

From darkness to light, July 24, the full moon day in the month of Ashada, is celebrated as Guru Purnima. On this day disciples come together to express their gratitude to their beloved guru, venerated as the embodiment of sage Veda Vyasa as an apostle of truth and wisdom, for having systematized the divine utterances in the form of the four Vedas, the eighteen puranas and the Mahabharata. Guru Purnima is a special occasion to commemorate Vyasa's service to humanity, and to resolve to follow the path of learning and knowledge.

Indian tradition believes in the importance of establishing a strong guru-shishya relationship; only then can the seeker attain truth and divine wisdom. Wisdom is their meeting point. The teachings and discourses of the guru constitute the link. The guru-shishya tradition goes beyond mere pedantic learning. Swami Kuvalayananda said: "Very often philosophic gymnastics is mistaken for spiritual knowledge... no intellectual conviction or philosophical training will take an individual even a bit nearer the Lord; practical experiences in the sublime regions of adhyatma alone count."

The term guru should not be confused with acharya or upadhyaya. An acharya is one who performs rityal ceremonies and practical arts. They could be called shiksha gurus.

Osho, while explaining the role of a guru says: "The role of a guru is to give you a glimpse of the real not a teaching but an awakening. The guru is not a teacher, the guru is awakener."

The one who takes us from darkness to light is said to be a guru. Disciples live together at the ashram of a guru, where they learn the importance of austerity and devotion by serving the guru. All great masters have had their gurus.

Even Lord Krishna, who is regarded as jagatguru, sat at the feet of Guru sandipani. The guru shares his being with his students. He initiates the disciple into a path of learning that suits the seeker's temperament and capability. A worthy shishya remains loyal to his diksha guru.

The absence of a guru, though, does not preclude learning and wisdom. Indian tradition regards whatever is visible in nature, the diverse objects of the universe, as replicas of the supreme guru. The lessons of Truth are learnt.

The allegorical lesson being that the guru, the embodiment of divine wisdom, is all pervasive. We thus need to conduct ourselves virtuously, learn to appreciate the beauty of natural phenomena and live simply before we can expect to find a satguru.

A guru can only guide us along the path of learning, the effort and the toil has to be the disciple's. In a way, one is one's own guru. Only when you learn to seek divinity within your self, live a disciplined life and follow the advice of your guru, will you find the light within. The guru's presence is enough, his silence does the rest. Lasting cheerfulness accurse to the recipient.

SIMPLE LIVING…

The well-known adage that we eat to live, and not live to eat, draws sustenance from the biblical truth that man does not live by bread alone but by the word of god.

This is so because when a man lives by the word of god, it gains primacy and all other things become subordinate to it. That is how a good book becomes the “precious life-blood of a master spirit”. This assumes added significance as the verse takes us to colossal heights of glory and we eat only if we must.

Just as we “talk less and work more” which is the slogan for efficiency for carrying out any work at the stipulated time, eat less and think more is the secret of living in grace, keeping off sins since gluttony is one of the seven deadly sins.

Moreover, gluttony leads to disgrace. Unknowingly some people “punish” their offspring by giving too much food, slowly leading them to other vices.

That is why frequent fasting, as well as preference for a light vegetarian diet is essential to acquire purification of mind and body. At the same time, application of the philosophy of simple living and high thinking makes sense. Self-purification demands that our thought, word and deed ought to be disciplined so as to attain spiritual and intellectual acumen and maintain consistency in both precept and practice.

There are people who make caustic comments on colleagues about whom they say: “I have seldom seen you eating in office”. Whether this is something worthy of admiration or derision becomes a matter of conjecture.

Simplicity is the cardinal principle of enlightened men who are keen on pursuing an austere life as against the drift of ostentatious display of wealth and vulgarity by the nouveau rich.

Everyone would like to strive for true happiness but the miasma of worldly pleasures prevents one from achieving it. The divine secret of it is that those who hear the word of god and obey it shall get it. “From the very beginning, the word was with god. The word was the source of life and this life brought light to mankind.”

Man is supposed to live in harmony with nature and not to go against its laws by imbibing the spirit of the verse from the scripture, along with carefully chosen morsel, may add glory to lives of many a million.

My shortest love story...

I still remember, it happened some ten years back. I was on a travel to my native from Chennai. We used to have tea in order to refresh us and restart our journey with regained energy and freshness. We stopped our car in a road side tea shop and had ordered tea for our family. One girl was serving the tea.

It seems she was working there as a part time worker and helping her family. After listening to this story (as usual) I have fell in love with her. She stayed in my mind for 22 minutes. That is the time we took to have tea at that tea shop. After so much of years, just while typing this post, I get remembered about that girl, who might have been a mother by now.

Friday, March 13, 2009

A RIVER IN SPATE...

Rivers occupy an important place in the economy of India. They provide irrigation to parched lands. They are used for navigation. Fishermen catch fish from rivers for a livelihood. Villagers find rivers handy for their day-to-day needs of water. Habitations flourish on the banks of rivers. A number of big cities as Hardwar, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna and Kolkata came up on the banks of rivers.
India is fortunate in having a number of rivers Sutlej,
Beas, Ganges, Yamuna, Narmada, Mahanadi, Brahmaputra. These have water the whole year round. At times, these rivers are in spate owing to excessive rain or melting snow. They overflow their banks causing misery to people. Men and cattle are affected. Standing crops are damaged. Though big dams have been built the problems is solved only to some extent. A flood is a natural calamity. Every year some part of the country or the other is affected.
A few years back the Yamuna in Delhi was in spate. It crossed the danger mark and overflowed its banks causing damage to life, cattle, and property in low-lying areas. Flood or drought here become more or less and annual affair. The Visitation could be to any state.
The Delhi Administration did its duty. It gave advance warning to people living near the banks of the Yamuna. Flood waters entered residential areas. Affected people were shifted to higher ground in relief camps. Some were accommodated in distant school buildings. Mud houses collapsed. The rising Yamuna caused great havoc. Standing crops got flooded. Some villages were completely marooned and help reached them by boat. Some were atop tree for a long time.
After some days, water receded. Water in villages had to be pumped out. There was danger of spread of epidemic. The flood caused loss to life and property. A number of voluntary organizations came forward to lend a helping hand. They distributed clothes and cooked meals to those affected. Some schools and colleges also organized relief work.
Red Cross rendered medical assistance. Funds came from the prime minister's relief fund for rehabilitation of farmers. Floods are natural calamities where movements are swift and damage-capability great. Crisis management plan has to be in place to face such an eventuality that has become almost an annual occurrence.

TELEVISION...

Television got introduced in India on an experimental basis in Delhi on 15 September 1959. This was converted into a regular service in 1965. In the beginning TV sets were quite costly and only the upper class could afford it. From October 1972 a number of TV centres were set up in Mumbai, Srinagar, Jalandar, Kolkata, Chennai and Lucknow in quick succession.

The TV network got a big boost during the ninth Asian Games in November 1982 when 20 transmitters were installed in different state capitals and some important cities. Another landmark was on August 1982 when colour television was introduced in India. Colour TV sets were costlier. Come smaller portable sets black & white and colour. Doordarshan started its national programmes. By 22 February was 563 covering 83.6 per cent of India's population.

Television is a miracle of scientific and technological research. J.L. Baird was the inventor. Radio is audio, while TV is audiovisual. The invention is really a revolution. It has promoted the fields of communication, entertainment and education. We are kept informed fo latest national and international news.

In the comfort of our drawing rooms, we watch films, drama and magicians perform. There are short interesting serials. We hear talks of eminent politician, scientists, editors, scholars, musicians, film stars and other professionals. Their talks add to out knowledge and we keep abreast of developments. Public opinion is moulded. It is a very powerful medium and its reach is stupendous. It is a very powerful medium and its reach is stupendous.

It focuses our attention on evils like untouchability, dowry, sati tradition, child labour, child marriage, drinking gambling, drug addiction. People become aware to root out the evils.

TV is also helpful in popularising science, and government policies and projects as small family norm, tree plantation, adult education, non-formal education employment assistance, and inculcation of civic sense in people inclusive of care of serior citizens and the handicapped.

Corruption is spreading. It can be checked through this mass medium. Also, back marketing, hoarding, smuggling can be stopped.

On the negative side, students waste a lot of time seeing theri favourite programmes. Adults may become sedentary watchers. Or being too close may adversely affect one's eyesight.

Yet, Tv has great entertainment value for sports person watching national and international fixtures. For rural folk there is the agricultural programme and their kind of entertainment and talks.

Educational programmes of different levels are also telecast. When Parliament is in session the highlights may be covered. TV gives us 'live' programmes that could be recorded on VCRs for later viewing. Neighbours and their children may also drop in to watch certain new or good movies if that does not upset the family's privacy.

It has become so much part of our life that it looks like that without it we will be missing something something important in life. Verily, we cannot miss on information, communication and entertainment that keeps us mentally alert and in good humour.

Thriller story...

It was some tallest hill of India. Most of the people who lived there are saints. Many of them are fake saints. But still they pretend as if they have some direct link with Almighty God. They were wearing the traditional saffron color dress and were reciting something in their mouths.

Few saints there had pets. The pets were nothing but tigers. The tigers behaved as if they were dogs and not tigers. The place remained calm. Hundred percent calm. Cool breeze increased the calmness into few more percent. The attributes of the environment are sun, colder atmosphere; saints, their pets, snow fall in near by mounts, and complete silence.

The silence was broken when a screaming voice reached from the top of one of the peaks there. Every one stay remained with their recitation except few tigers which turned their faces.

The screaming voice dissolved down in to the silence soon. My legs moved towards the place from where the screaming voice came. There I saw... (To be continued...)

GOOD MANNERS...

Good manners play a significant role in one's life. Learning good manners should be done early in life it costs nothing only effort is needed. Good manners attract others. Good manners and courtesy have an impact. It builds one's reputation as a person grows up.

A person without good manners remains a beast and is kept at arm's length; a person who is polite and considerate becomes popular. Good manners come from parents; these could also be learnt by following good teachers and elders. Good mannered children bring credit to the family and are welcome everywhere. Children can learn a lot from good schools and good company.

Good manners need to be cultivated. How a child speaks, how it conducts itself, how it respect elders all these count. A child looks a lot better if it has good manners.

Life stories of great men tell us about geniuses, and how humble and simple they have been. A child with good conduct not only brings credit to the family but also to the school he studies in.

Words and phrases like "I am sorry", "Please", "Kindly", "Thank you", "Sir", "Madam", "I beg your pardon" should be used often. Especially, one should be on the lookout where one could help or be polite. These graciously and politely said at the right time sound so sweet. Even if something negative has to be said, do it in a way that does not hurt the other person. Even respond positively to a negative situation.

You should be tolerant of opinions of others. In discussions, keeps it going without raising your voice in anger or disgust. Learn to disagree gracefully. We should steer clear of controversial or sensitive subjects here discussions go round and round and lead to nowhere.

Be considerate to elders, ladies, and the sick and the handicapped and try to help them by offering them seats in trains and buses. But never ridicule them it will be the height of bad manners. You should not be seen in poor light that way you are the stark loser.

If you are talking, listen attentively also. And in any case do not interrupt. Be sweet of tongue and mean it. Never use foul language. Do not spit where you are sitting or standing. Do not pretend; be your real self. Throw litter and garbage only in the dustbin. Banana peels thrown on the road make good slippers. Also develop good civic sense. While waiting join the queue. That way quite a few good things you could do and win praise.

Others could be very observant. Good manners are to you what cosmetics, good clothes and jewellery are to the body these enhance your value and you become a precious human being. Swami Vivekananda said: "Help and not fight, assimilation and not dissociation, harmony and peace and not dissensions" should be key words for every person.

Wednesday, March 4, 2009

DIVINE DIRECTIVES...

Divine directives have to be obeyed. Several are the categorical assurances given by god to men of deep faith to save them from ordeals (which have been made known in the holy texts). One among such statements refers to the bad elements "who disturb the peace of devotees who abide by this Law of Righteousness".

"When hatred develops in the mind of an individual towards various gods, the Vedas, the bovine race, the pious souls, towards the virtuous and Myself, that person will surely perish before long", says the Lord in the Gita. He gave a long rope to one such individual who claimed himself to be god and forced everyone to recognize him alone as "supreme".

However, when he overstepped his limits and tortured his child, who defied him, reposing full confidence only in Divine dispensation, god interfered and protected him from different dangers and punished the evildoer. In the grand, elaborate and perfect scheme of god's administrative machinery, duties have been assigned to groups, including celestials, the aim being the strict maintenance of the Law of Righteousness.

When people fail to carry out the Divine directives, problems are bound to arise. When there is a duty for the god of rains to do his job he did so and the result was prosperity. People who were asked to perform religious austerities to satisfy gods obeyed and prospered. But people, who did not submit themselves to Divine Law and even caused disturbances to god-loving devotees, were not-spared at all.

Mention is made about the revengeful attitude of a demon king because of the death of his brother at the hands of the Lord and who thought of wiping out this "wily adversary" (Vishnu), ordered his attendants to exterminate all those engaged in pious austerities and proceeded to conduct a grim penance to obtain unquestionable authority.

He consoled his mother not to lament over the boon of her other son. Satisfied with his resolve, Brahma (god entrusted with the powers of creation) granted the boon that he would not die under normal circumstances, either indoors or outdoors, during day or night, not by any weapon, nor by animate or inanimate objects and he could exercise lordship over everyone.

Armed with such wide powers, he committed atrocities on virtuous people, who then appealed to the Lord to protect them.

As one who never fails, Vishnu, through a voice without any trace of the speakers' form, promised them of safety.

"When the demon king seeks to harm his own son who will remain attached to Me, I shall slay him in spite of Brahma's boon."

Tuesday, March 3, 2009

ABOUT TRAVEL...

Travel has educational value. It increases our knowledge. While on travel, a person meets people of different races, regions, religion, castes. A person also visits different places each location has importance of its own. Educational institutions arrange travel programs for their students during vacations. Students from western countries travel often and far.
Travel also gives much pleasure. It gives us change of environment. It relieves us of day-to-day anxieties. It gives a chance to meet people with different habits and customs. Their food may be different. Thus we can learn about people of foreign climes through travel books. But when we personally visit it makes a difference. We gain first-hand knowledge of these countries and the people. The personal touch makes us remember for ever.
We can visit historical places as Agra, Gaya, Raipur, Jhansi, Hyderabad, Amanda, Mysore, and Udaipur. We may also visit places of religious significance like Ajmer, Amritsar. Travel could also take us to hill resorts in the country during summer or for winter sports.
Francis Bacon, the English prose writer has said: "Travelling in the young is part of education, in the older, a part of experience". Young persons get immense gain by travelling. Their education gets refined. It also enables to mix with different people and bind with social relationships. It allows us to rise above narrow considerations unlike a frog going round and round in a well. Travel broadens our horizons and we come back with new ideas. Our outlook changes, we have better perspective.
Travel plays an important role in national integration and people's relations. Diverse people with different language, dress and food habits get together. By visiting other countries, we come to know how other people have progressed. We get familiar with their culture and civilization. These days travel, especially group travelling, is encouraged to other countries and continents attractive group travel packages are offered. Travel is thus a commendable experience. It helps the spirit and concept of vasudhaiva kuttumbakum the entire world is one family. It improves our sense of observation and makes us social. It sharpens out mind and uplifts our spirit. The hobby and fondness for travel, within the country or overseas, ensures great returns and results in improvement in psyche.
 
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